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Total number of cows or bulls on homestead

This is a 5-digit variable that represents a number of cows or bulls on the homestead, except for the following codes:

99990 = Logical edit
99996 = Not interviewed (household questionnaire)
99997 = Don't know
99998 = No response
99999 = NIU (not in universe)


COWBULLHOME reports the total number of cows or bulls on the household's homestead, regardless of who owns them.

Users should be careful to distinguish this variable from COWBULLNUM (the number of cows or bulls owned by the household).

Enumerators were instructed to code "Don't know" or "No response" cases as -88 and -99, respectively. However, in some samples, a select number of enumerators recorded an unexpectedly high number of 88 and 99 values for livestock variables. We believe the majority of these cases were intended to represent "don't know" and "no responses" instead of indicating a number of livestock. IPUMS has recoded these cases to "Logical edit - missing".

The question associated with this variable was included in the household questionnaire.

Comparability — Index



In addition to universe differences, there are variations in the animals referred to. Most commonly, the survey asked if the household owned any cows or bulls, or milk cows or bulls. However, some samples, noted below, included other animals in the same question.


  • Persons in households with livestock on the homestead.


  • Burkina Faso: 2014-2016
  • Congo (Democratic Republic): 2014-2017
  • Cote d'Ivoire: 2017
  • Ghana: 2014-2017
  • India: 2016-2017
  • Indonesia: 2015-2016
  • Kenya: 2014-2016
  • Niger: 2015-2017
  • Nigeria: 2014-2017