Codes and Frequencies
For respondents of the female questionnaire, EDUCATTGEN reports the highest level of education the woman attended in four general categories. It does not report whether the woman completed that level.
Countries differ in their educational systems and levels, but EDUCATTGEN harmonizes the codes into a few general and largely comparable categories. Country-specific categories are retained in the variable EDUCATT.
The variable EDUCOMP provides additional information that was collected in the Democratic Republic of the Congo 2014 Round 2 sample regarding whether or not the woman had completed the highest level of schooling she had attended.
The question associated with this variable was included in the female questionnaire.
Comparability — Index
Congo (Democratic Republic)
There are inherent comparability issues due to each country's distinct educational system. Categories sharing the same first digit are largely comparable, though second digits retain country-specific details.
Comparability — Burkina Faso [top]
Burkina Faso has a 6-4-3 system, comprising 6 years of primary, 4 years in the first cycle of secondary, and 3 years in the second cycle of secondary.
Comparability — Congo (Democratic Republic) [top]
In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, there are 6 years of primary school followed by 6 years of secondary school. In the DRC 2014 Round 2 sample, the questionnaire gathered information not only about the highest level of schooling she attended, but also whether she completed that level. No other sample provides this level of information. This detail has been retained in the variable EDUCOMP. For the purposes of comparability, incomplete and completed levels of schooling codes have been combined at the education level in EDUCATT.
Comparability — Ethiopia [top]
The educational system in Ethiopia has a 4-4-2-2 structure, including 8 years of primary (divided in 2 cycles of 4 years), 2 years of general secondary (grades 9 to 10), and 2 years of upper secondary (or preparatory, grades 11 to 12). In Ethiopia, students can continue to technical or vocational education after completing general secondary school (after grade 10), and it is considered distinct from tertiary (bachelor's degree or higher) education.
Comparability — Ghana [top]
Ghana has a 6-3-3 education system, which includes 6 years of primary (divided into two cycles), 3 years of junior secondary school (JSS), and 3 years of senior secondary school (SSS). Post-secondary university education is typically 4 years.
Comparability — Indonesia [top]
Indonesia has a 6-3-3 system, which consists of 6 years of primary education (grades 1-6), 3 years of junior secondary school, and 3 years of senior secondary school. Higher education is offered at universities, institutes, academies, colleges, and polytechnics. All these institutions provide professional education leading to a diploma, but only universities and institutes provide academic education leading to a degree. Respondents who attended an academy are coded as having attended "Tertiary/post-secondary".
Comparability — Kenya [top]
Kenya has an 8-4-4 system (8 years of primary education, 4 years of secondary, and 4 years of university). For students who do not attend secondary school, youth polytechnic institutions offer technical diplomas. These cases are coded as "post-primary technical/vocational". The Kenya questionnaire distinguished college attendance and university attendance as two distinct levels. In Kenya, 2 to 3-year post-secondary technical/vocational institutions are referred to as colleges, so these cases have been coded as "Tertiary/post-secondary ". University attendance is coded as tertiary or higher level.
Comparability — Niger [top]
In Niger, there is a 6-4-3 educational system structure, including 6 years of primary school, 4 years of first cycle secondary, and 3 years of second cycle secondary.
Comparability — Nigeria [top]
Nigeria has a 6-3-3 structure, with 6 years of primary, 3 years of junior secondary, and 3 years of senior secondary.
Comparability — Uganda [top]
Uganda's educational system has a 4-3-4-2 structure, including 4 years of lower primary, 3 years of upper primary, 4 years of lower secondary, and 2 years of upper secondary. The secondary system is borrowed from the British system in which lower and upper secondary cycles conclude with O-level and A-level exams, respectively.
Graduates of lower secondary school can attend 2 or 3-year technical institutes. These cases have been coded as "Tertiary/post-secondary". The category of "never attended" also includes respondents who attended preschool, but not primary school.
Comparability with IPUMS-DHS
EDUCATTGEN in IPUMS-PMA is similar to the variable EDUCLVL in IPUMS-DHS in that it represents the highest level of education attended. However, there may be differences in how post-primary and post-secondary technical/vocational education are coded, and there may be differences in questionnaire text or the variable's universe; see the Survey Text and Universe Tab of the IPUMS-DHS variable for more information.
- Women aged 15-49.
- Burkina Faso: 2014-2016
- Congo (Democratic Republic): 2013-2016
- Cote d'Ivoire: 2017
- Ethiopia: 2014-2017
- Ghana: 2013-2016
- India: 2016-2017
- Indonesia: 2015-2016
- Kenya: 2014-2016
- Niger: 2015-2017
- Nigeria: 2014-2017
- Uganda: 2014-2017