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DRINKWTRTYPE
Classification of main source of drinking water (improved/unimproved)

Codes and Frequencies







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Description

DRINKWTRTYPE indicates whether the household's main source of drinking water is an improved or unimproved water source. Improved water sources are those that, by nature of their construction or through active intervention, are likely to be protected from outside contamination; for example, with fecal matter.

As outlined by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP), the following types of drinking water sources are said to be improved:

  • Piped water into dwelling, plot, or yard
  • Public tap/standpipe
  • Tubewell/borehole
  • Protected dug well
  • Protected spring
  • Rainwater collection
  • Bottled water/sachet water*

The following types of water sources are said to be unimproved:

  • Unprotected dug well
  • Unprotected spring
  • Cart with small tank/drum
  • Tanker-truck
  • Surface water (river, dam, lake, pond, stream, canal, irrigation channels)

* The JMP's classification of packaged water i.e., from a bottled or sachet, has changed over time. Initially, bottled/sachet water was considered to be an improved source of drinking water only if the household also used an improved source of water for non-drinking purposes. However, packaged water is now considered by JMP to be an improved source for drinking water, regardless of the water source used for non-drinking purposes. Some samples do not conform to this classification standard; see Comparability.

The question associated with this variable was included in the household questionnaire.

Comparability — Index

GENERAL
Burkina Faso
Congo (Democratic Republic)
Ethiopia
Niger

Comparability

There is some variability in the way bottled and sachet water are classified across samples. Most commonly, these water sources are treated as improved sources of water. Samples that diverge from this convention are noted below.

Comparability — Burkina Faso [top]

In the Round 2 survey, bottled water is considered to be an unimproved source of water and sachet water is considered to be improved.

Comparability — Congo (Democratic Republic) [top]

In the Round 2 survey, bottled water is considered to be an unimproved source of water and sachet water is considered to be improved.

In all subsequent rounds, both bottled water and sachet water are considered to be improved water sources.

Comparability — Ethiopia [top]

In the Round 2 and 3 surveys, bottled water is always considered to be an unimproved source of water. Sachet water is considered to be an improved source of drinking water only if the household also used an improved source of water for non-drinking purposes.

Comparability — Niger [top]

In the Round 2 Lagos survey, bottled water is always considered to be an unimproved source of water. Sachet water is considered to be an improved source of drinking water only if the household also used an improved source of water for non-drinking purposes.

In the Round 3 survey, sachet water is always considered to be an unimproved source of water. Bottled water is considered to be an improved source of drinking water only if the household also used an improved source of water for non-drinking purposes.

Universe

  • All persons.

Availability

  • Burkina Faso: 2014-2017
  • Congo (Democratic Republic): 2014-2017
  • Cote d'Ivoire: 2017-2018
  • Ethiopia: 2014-2018
  • Ghana: 2013-2017
  • India: 2016-2018
  • Indonesia: 2015-2016
  • Kenya: 2014-2017
  • Niger: 2015-2018
  • Nigeria: 2014-2018
  • Uganda: 2014-2018