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Current use of breastfeeding as FP method

Codes and Frequencies

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FPNOWUSBF indicates whether the woman is currently breastfeeding in order to delay or avoid becoming pregnant. After the woman reported currently using the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) when asked about family planning methods, respondents were further asked whether they were breastfeeding specifically in order to delay or avoid pregnancy.

Users may also be interested in the variable FPNOWUSLAM, which indicates whether the woman reported using the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) in response to an open-ended question about current contraceptive use.

The question associated with this variable was included in the female questionnaire.


There are no comparability issues.

Comparability with IPUMS-DHS

FPNOWUSBF in IPUMS-PMA is similar to the variable FPNOWUSBF in IPUMS-DHS. Slight differences in questionnaire text and the universes may affect comparability. In the IPUMS-DHS surveys, women who reported ever using breastfeeding as a way to delay or avoid becoming pregnant were further asked if they were currently breastfeeding to delay or avoid becoming pregnant. See the Survey Text and Universe Tab of the IPUMS-DHS variable for more information.


  • Women age 15-49 who reported current use of LAM.


  • Burkina Faso: 2016
  • Congo (Democratic Republic): 2015-2017
  • Cote d'Ivoire: 2017
  • Ethiopia: 2016-2017
  • Ghana: 2016-2017
  • India: 2016-2017
  • Indonesia: 2016
  • Kenya: 2015-2016
  • Niger: 2015-2017
  • Nigeria: 2016-2017
  • Uganda: 2016-2017