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Total number of milk cows, oxen, or bulls owned

This is a 5-digit variable that represents the number of milk cows, oxen, or bulls owned by the household, except for the following codes:

99990 = Logical edit
99996 = Not interviewed (household questionnaire)
99997 = Don't know
99998 = No response
99999 = NIU (not in universe)


MILKOXBULLNUM reports the number of milk cows, oxen, or bulls owned by the household.

Users should be careful to distinguish this variable from MILKOXBULLHOME (the number of milk cows, oxen, or bulls on the household's homestead, which may or may not be owned by the household).

Respondents were asked to report what assets the household owned in order to calculate a wealth index based on assets. This information can be found in the variables SCORE, WEALTHQ, and WEALTHT.

Enumerators were instructed to code "Don't know" or "No response" cases as -88 and -99, respectively. However, in some samples, a select number of enumerators recorded an unexpectedly high number of 88 and 99 values for livestock variables. We believe the majority of these cases were intended to represent "don't know" and "no responses" instead of indicating a number of livestock. IPUMS has recoded these cases to "Logical edit - missing".

The question associated with this variable was included in the household questionnaire.

Comparability — Index



Apart from slight variation in question wording, there are no comparability issues. Most commonly, the survey asked about the ownership of milk cows, oxen, or bulls, but some surveys deviated slightly from this standard.

Comparability — Ghana [top]

The Round 3 and 4 surveys asked about ownership of "milk cows or bulls," and did not explicitly include oxen.


  • Persons in households that own livestock.


  • Ethiopia: 2014-2018
  • Ghana: 2014-2017