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Main roof material
Group: Housing

Codes and Frequencies

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ROOF reports the main material of the roof of the household. This variable is based on the interviewer's observation, not the interviewee's response.

The type of roof found in the household is used to calculate a wealth index based on the household's cumulative living standard. This information can be found in the variables SCORE, WEALTHQ, and WEALTHT.

The question associated with this variable was included in the household questionnaire.


The response categories for ROOF vary across samples. To maximize comparability, IPUMS-PMA uses composite coding, where the first digit broadly distinguishes between floors made of natural materials, rudimentary materials, and finished materials. The second digit within these broad categories identifies a general subcategory (e.g., brick), and the third digit retains detail present in only some samples (e.g., burnt brick).

Comparability with IPUMS-DHS

ROOF in IPUMS-PMA is similar to the variable ROOF in IPUMS-DHS. There may be differences in questionnaire text or the variable's universe; see the Survey Text and Universe Tab of the IPUMS-DHS variable for more information.


  • All persons.


  • Burkina Faso: 2014-2016
  • Congo (Democratic Republic): 2013-2016
  • Cote d'Ivoire: 2017
  • Ethiopia: 2014-2017
  • Ghana: 2013-2016
  • India: 2016-2017
  • Indonesia: 2015-2016
  • Kenya: 2014-2016
  • Niger: 2015-2017
  • Nigeria: 2014-2017
  • Uganda: 2014-2017