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This variable is a 17-digit variable with decimal points. All cases that are missing or NIU (not in universe) are coded as zero.


HQWEIGHT is an inverse probability weight, or the selection probability of selecting the household in the enumeration area (EAID). HQWEIGHT can be used as a nationally representative inverse probability weight for households, and should be used in analyses of all questions on the household questionnaire. HQWEIGHT controls for household and female non-response, but because there are multiple people in one household, analyses should be restricted to one person per household, using LINENO. Most simply, analyses can be restricted to persons with LINENO equal to 1. This restriction yields one result per household and thus appropriately gives equal weight to households with one member and households with many members.

For more details on how HQWEIGHT was calculated, please see the Weighting Memo from the PMA team.

Comparability — Index



Most IPUMS-PMA samples were designed to be nationally representative. The survey design allows for representative estimates for subnational regions, such as urban or rural areas, or at the region/province level. The Sample Descriptions page provides information about the level of representation for each survey round, and the margin of error associated with each sample and geographic level. It also identifies survey rounds that were conducted only within certain regions of a country. Differences in representation may affect comparability of HQWEIGHT across samples.

Comparability — India [top]

The India 2016 Round 1 sample was fielded in the Rajasthan region of India, and is therefore not nationally representative. Analyses using HQWEIGHT will produce estimates representative of Rajasthan.

Comparability — Niger [top]

The Niger 2015 Round 1 sample was fielded in Niamey, a city in Niger, and is therefore not nationally representative. Analyses using HQWEIGHT will produce estimates representative of Niamey.

Comparability — Nigeria [top]

For the Nigeria 2016 Round 3 survey, a three-stage sampling method was used to select respondents rather than the two-stage method that was used for most other PMA2020 surveys. For this sample, HQWEIGHT is the nationally representative post stratification weight. Other weights are available at the state level in this sample.


  • All persons.


  • Burkina Faso: 2014-2018, 2020-2022
  • Congo (Democratic Republic): 2013-2021
  • Cote d'Ivoire: 2017-2018, 2020-2022
  • Ethiopia: 2014-2019, 2021
  • Ghana: 2013-2017
  • India: 2016-2018, 2020-2022
  • Indonesia: 2015-2016
  • Kenya: 2014-2021
  • Niger: 2015-2018, 2020, 2022-2023
  • Nigeria: 2016-2020
  • Uganda: 2014-2022