Citation and Use of IPUMS PMA

Publications and research reports based on the IPUMS PMA database must cite it appropriately. The citation should include the following:

For policy briefs or articles in the popular press that use the IPUMS PMA database, we recommend that you cite the use of IPUMS data as follows:

IPUMS PMA, University of Minnesota,

The registration agreement for IPUMS PMA requires that users supply us with the title and full citation for any publications, research reports, or educational materials making use of the data or documentation. Please add your citation to the IPUMS bibliography.

Citation of source data

Users should also cite the PMA source data appropriately for each sample you have used, according to the following framework:

Generic citation

Performance Monitoring for Action (PMA), [the name of the relevant PMA partner institution(s)]. [Survey year]. [Country]. Baltimore, MD: PMA2020, Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Partner organizations

Burkina Faso: Burkina Faso Institut national de la statistique et de la demographie (National Institute of Statistics and Demography)

Côte d'Ivoire: Institut National de la Statistique de la Côte d'Ivoire (INS-Côte d'Ivoire), La Direction de Coordination du Programme National de Santé de la Mère et de l'Enfant (DC-PNSME)

Democratic Republic of the Congo: Tulane University School of Public Health, University of Kinshasa School of Public Health.

Ethiopia: Addis Ababa University School of Public Health

Ghana: Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology School of Medicine

India: Indian Institute of Health Management Research (IIHMR) University in Jaipur

Indonesia: National Population and Family Planning Board of Indonesia (BkkbN), Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), Universitas Hasanuddin (UNHAS), Universitas Sumatera Utara (USU)

Kenya: International Centre for Reproductive Health Kenya (ICRHK)

Niger: Niger/Niamey Institut National de la Statistique (National Institute of Statistics)

Nigeria (2015-onward): Centre for Research, Evaluation Resources and Development (CRERD), Bayero University Kano (BUK)

Nigeria (2014): Centre for Population and Reproductive Health (CPRH), University of Ibadan; Centre for Research, Evaluation Resources and Development (CRERD); Population and Reproductive Health Program (PRHP), Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU); Bayero University Kano (BUK)

Uganda: Makerere University, School of Public Health at the College of Health Sciences