Citation and Use of IPUMS-PMA

Publications and research reports based on the IPUMS-PMA database must cite it appropriately. The citation should include the following:

Citation: Elizabeth Heger Boyle, Devon Kristiansen, and Matthew Sobek. IPUMS-PMA: Version 1.0 [dataset] Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS, 2018.

For policy briefs or articles in the popular press that use the IPUMS-PMA database, we recommend that you cite the use of IPUMS data as follows:

IPUMS-PMA, University of Minnesota,

The registration agreement for IPUMS-PMA requires that users supply us with the title and full citation for any publications, research reports, or educational materials making use of the data or documentation. Please add your citation to the IPUMS bibliography.